The Eddy-Bissell Cattle Company was developed in 1881 leading to the establishment of Eddy County. The county boundaries were set in 1889 with Seven Rivers chosen as the seat. The discovery of the artesian aquifer led to the name of Artesia, New Mexico in 1903 and the city was officially incorporated in 1905. Oil was discovered in 1909 with another big oil strike occurring in 1923 near Artesia. Potash mining created another economic boom after it was discovered in 1925 near Carlsbad.
New Mexico generally consists of semiarid to arid weather conditions. With an elevation of 3,380 feet, Artesia features a moderate desert climate with minimal snow, mild springs and dry, hot summers. Sunshine is abundant on 279 days out of the year on average. Annual precipitation includes 14 inches of rain and seven inches of snow.
Artesia, New Mexico features all kinds of entertainment from golf and outdoor sports to wineries and performing arts. The Artesia Historical Museum and Art Center contains artifacts and exhibits preserving local heritage. The Artesia Walking Tour traverses through town starting at the train depot or Artesia Visitor’s Center and stopping a each historic monument. Artesia Public Library is a state-of-the-art community resource offering over 50,000 books and periodicals. Artesia Country Club presents challenges for all golfers as well as a social club. Microbrews and wineries are numerous including Wellhead Restaurant and Brewpub, Cottonwood Wine and Brewing and Balzano Family Vineyard and Pumpkin Patch. Artesia Art Council has provided cultural enrichment throughout southeast Mexico with events like Art in the Park and Missoula Children’s Theatre. Eddy County Shooting Range Association offers education, shooting sports and other outdoor activities in a safe and controlled environment.
The production of gas and oil is the major industry comprised of entities such as Yates Companies, Chase Companies, Concho Resources and Devon Energy. Navajo Refining is Artesia’s largest private sector employer. Agriculture has been a significant component of the economy since the town’s early development. There are more than 45 dairies in Artesia, which is also the headquarters of Select Milk Produces, the sixth-largest milk cooperative in the nation. The second-largest Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in the country is also located in Artesia. Artesia General Hospital is a regional facility providing high-quality services throughout the region.